Hindi books, 10th course urdu book essay kahaniyan.

Hindi literature(Hindi: हिन्दी साहित्य, Hindi Sahitya) involves literature inside the various Central Zone Indo-Aryan languages that have writing devices. It is extensively classified in to four visible forms (styles) based on the date of production. They molar mass of no are really:

  • Vir-Gatha kal (poems extolling brave warriors) – 11th–14th 100 years
  • Bhakti kal poetry (devotional poems) – 14th–18th century
  • Riti or perhaps Srngar kal poems (poems of romance) – 18th–20th century
  • Adhunik kal (modern literature) – 20th century onwards

The literary works was produced in dialects including Braj, Bundeli, Awadhi, Kannauji, Khariboli, Marwari, Magahi, Bhojpuri and Chhattisgarhi. [1] Through the 20th 100 years, works manufactured in Standard Hindi, a register of Hindustani written inside the Devanagari script, are sometimes regarded as the only foundation modern materials in Hindi. [2]


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Adi Kal or perhaps Vir-Gatha kal (c. 1050 to 1375) [ edit ]

Literary works ofAdi kal(c. before the 15th century CE) was developed in the regions of Kannauj, Delhi, Ajmer stretching approximately central India. [3]Prithviraj Llano, an amazing poem authored by Chand Bardai (1149 – c. 1200), is considered among the first works in the history of Hindi books. Chand Bardai was a courtroom poet of Prithviraj Chauhan, the famous ruler of Delhi and Ajmer during the attack of Muhammad of Ghor.

Jayachand, the very last ruler of Kannauj belonging to the Rathore Rajput clan, gave more appui to Sanskrit rather than local dialects. Harsha, the author ofNaishdhiya Charitra, was his court poet person. Jagnayak (sometimes Jagnik), the royal poet in Mahoba, and Nalha, the noble poet in Ajmer, were the other prominent fictional figures through this period. Yet , after Prithviraj Chauhan’s beat in the Second Battle of Tarain, most literary works belonging to this era were demolished by the military services of Muhammad of Ghor. Very few scriptures and manuscripts from this period are available and their genuineness is usually doubted.

A few Siddha and Nathpanthi poetical works belonging to this period are usually found, however genuineness is usually again, doubted. The Siddhas belonged to the Vajrayana, a later Buddhist sect. Some scholars argue that the language of Siddha poetry is not an earlier type of Hindi, although Magadhi Prakrit. Nathpanthis had been yogis who practised the Hatha yoga. Some Jain andRasau(heroic poets) poetry works are also available from this period.

In the Deccan region in South India, Dakkhini or Hindavi utilized. It flourished under the Delhi Sultanate and later under the Nizams of Hyderabad. It was written in the Local script. Nevertheless, the Hindavi literature may very well be as proto-Hindi literature. Various Deccani specialists like Sheikh Ashraf or Mulla Vajahi used the termHindavito describe this dialect. Others such as Roustami, Nishati etc . favored to call it Deccani. Shah Buharnuddin Janam Bijapuri accustomed to call it Hindi. The initially Deccani publisher was Khwaja Bandanawaz Gesudaraz Muhammad Hasan. He wrote three prose works – Mirazul Aashkini, Hidayatnama and Risala Sehwara. His grand son Abdulla Hussaini wroteNishatul Ishq. The first Deccani poet was Nizami.

During the later element of this period and early Bhakti Kala, various saint-poets just like Ramanand and Gorakhnath became famous. The first form of Hindi can also be observed in some of Vidyapati’s Maithili functions.

Bhakti kaal (c. 1375 to 1700) [ edit ]

The medieval Hindi literature is definitely marked by the influence of Bhakti movements and structure of very long, epic poetry.

Awadhi and Braj Bhasha were the dialects through which literature was created. The main performs in Avadhi are Malik Muhammad Jayasi’sPadmavatand Tuls >[4]

The Bhakti period also marked great assumptive development in poetry varieties chiefly from a mixture of older forms of poems. These included Verse Habits likeDoha(two-liners)SorthaChaupaya(four-liners) etc . This was also the age when Poems was characterised under the different Rasas. Contrary to the Adi Kaal (also called the Vir Gatha Kaal) that was characterised simply by an overdose of Beautifully constructed wording in theVir Rasa(Heroic Poetry), the Bhakti Yug marked an infinitely more diverse and vibrant sort of poetry which spanned the full gamut of rasas fromShringara rasa(love)Vir Dulk?(Heroism).

Bhakti poems had two schools – theNirgunaschool (the believers of any formless God or an abstract name) and theSagunaschool (the believers of the God with attributes and worshippers of Vishnu’s incarnations). Kabir and Guru Nanak belong to the Nirguna university, and their idea was significantly influenced by Advaita Vedanta philosophy of Adi Sankaracharya. They supported the concept of Nirgun Nirakaar Bramh or the Shapeless Formless One. The Saguna school was represented by simply mainly Vaishnava poets like Surdas, Tulsidas and others and was a logical extension of the Dvaita and Vishishta Advaita Philosophy propounded by the loves of Madhavacharya etc . This kind of school was chiefly Vaishnava in orientation as in noticed in the main disposition like Ramacharitamanas, Sur Saravali, Sur Sagar extoling Ramo and Krishna.

This was as well the age of incredible integration between the Hindu plus the Islamic elements in the Artistry with the advent of many Muslim Bhakti poets like Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana who was a court poet person to Mughal emperor Akbar and was obviously a great lover of Krishna. The Nirgun School of Bhakti Poetry was also tremendously luxurious in mother nature and its propounders like Kabir and Guru Nanak had a large number of followers irrespective of body or religious beliefs.

Riti-kavya kal (c. 1700 to 1900) [ edit ]

In theRitikavyaor perhapsRitismagra Kavyaperiod, the erotic factor became main in the Hindi literature. This kind of era is named Riti (meaning ‘procedure’) as it was the era when graceful figures and theory were developed towards the fullest. But this emphasis on poetry theory greatly reduced the emotional facets of poetry—the key characteristic in the Bhakti movement—and the actual content of the beautifully constructed wording became significantly less important. The Saguna University of the Bhakti Yug split up into two educational institutions (Rama bhakti and Krishna bhakti) anywhere in the zwischenregierung of the Bhakti and the Reeti Eras. Though most Reeti works were outwordly associated with Krishna Bhakti, their emphasis had altered from total devotion for the supreme staying to the Shringar or sexual aspects of Krishna’s life—his Leela, his laughs with the Gopis in Braj, and the information of the physical beauty of Krishna and Radha, (Krishna’s Consort). The poetry of Bihari, and Ghananand Dasjenige fit this kind of bill. The most well known book from this age is the Bihari Satsai of Bihari, a collection of Dohas (couplets), dealing withBhakti(devotion)Neeti(Moral policies) andShringar(love).

The first Hindi books, using the Devanagari screenplay or Nāgarī script had been one Heera Lal’s treatise on Ain-i-Akbari, called Ain e Akbari ki Bhasha Vachanika, and Rewa Mharaja’s treatise about Kabir. Both books was released in 1795. Munshi Lallu Lal’s Hindi translation of Sanskrit Hitopadesha was printed in 1809. Lala Srinivas Das released a book in Hindi Pariksha master in the Nāgarī script in 1886. [5] Shardha Ram Phillauri had written a Hindi novel Bhagyawati which was published in 1888.

Chandrakanta, written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in 1888, can be cons >[6] Anyone who helped bring realism in the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fictional and accelerating movement.

Adhunik kal (c. 1900 onwards) [ edit ]

In 1800, the British East India Organization established Fort William College or university at Calcutta. The College president J. B. Gilchrist appointed professors to write books in Hindustani. Some of these books had beenPrem Sagarby Lallu LalNaasiketopaakhyanby Sadal MishraSukhsagarby Sadasukhlal of Delhi andRani Ketaki ki kahaniby Munshi Inshallah Khan.

The individual who helped bring realism inside the Hindi the entire literature was Munshi Premchand, who is viewed as the most adored figure in the world of Hindi fictional and progressive movement. Before Premchand, the Hindi literary works revolved around fairy or perhaps magical tales, entertaining testimonies and religious themes. Premchand’s novels have been completely translated in to many other dialects.

Gocharya ji authored Krishna Cahrit Mani?kis in the poetic form describing about the entire life of Lord Krishna (from labor and birth to Nirvana).

Dwivedi Yug [ edit ]

The Dwivedi Yug (“Age of Dwivedi”) in Hindi rhetorical analysis thesis literature lasted from 1900 to 1918. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who played a major role in establishing the modern Hindi language in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of the Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love. He encouraged poetry in Hindi dedicated to nationalism and social reform. [7]

Dwivedi became the editor of Saraswati in 1903, the first Hindi monthly magazine of India, which was established in 1900. [8] He used it to crusade for reforms in the Hindi literature. One of the most prominent poems of the period was Maithili Sharan Gupt’s Bharat-bharati , which evokes the past glory of India. Shr >[7]

Some scholars have labelled much of the poetry of this period as “versified propaganda”. According to Lucy Rosenstein: “It is verse of public statement; its language is functional but aesthetically unappealing. Earnestly concerned with social issues and moral values, it is puritanical poetry in which aesthetic cons >[7]

Without a poetic tradition in modern Hindi, poets often modeled their forms on Braj, and later on Sanskrit, Urdu, Bengali and English forms, often ill-suited to Hindi. The subjects of the poems tended to be communal rather than personal. Characters were often presented not as indiv >[7]

Chhayavaadi Yug [ modify ]

In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chhayavaad ( shadowism ) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chhayavaadi . Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’, Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant, are the four major Chhayavaadi poets. Poet Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’ was another great poet with some Chayavaadi element in his poetry although he wrote in other genres as well.

This period of Neo-romanticism, represents the adolescence of Hindi Poetry. It is marked by beauty of expression and flow of intense emotion. The four representative poets of this era represent the best in Hindi Poetry. A unique feature of this period is the emotional (and sometimes active) attachment of poets with national freedom struggle, their effort to understand and imbibe the vast spirit of a magnificent ancient culture and their towering genius which grossly overshadowed all the literary ‘talked abouts’ of next seven decades.

Other important genres of Adhunik Sahitya (Modernism) are: Prayogvad (Experimentalism) of Ajneya and the Tar Saptak poets, also known as Nayi Kavita (New Poetry) and Nayi Kahani (New Story) of Nirmal Verma and others; followed by Pragativad (Progressivism) of Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh and other authors. [9]

Nakenwad [ edit ]

Among the numerous schools of poetry which sprang up in the fifties of this century was Nakenwad , a school deriving its nomenclature from the first letters of the names of its three pioneers – Nalin Vilochan Sharma, Kesari Kumar, and Naresh Mehta all poets of note in their own right. [10] Apart from being poets, Nalin Vilochan and Kesari Kumar were also brilliant critics, with a w >[10] Their critical attitude is marked by a synthesis or coordination of various disciplines of human knowledge – philosophy, history, art and culture, all pressed into the service of literary appraisal and analysis. [10]

Genres of Hindi Literature [ edit ]

Hindi Kavita (Poetry) [ edit ]

Hindi has a rich legacy of poetry. There are several genres of Kavita based on Ras, Chhand and Alankar e.g. Shringar, Karun, Veer, Hāsya etc. [11] Hasya Kavita is humorous comic poetry in Hindi. It is particularly famous due to Hindi kavi sammelans. Bal Kavita is children’s rhymes in Hindi.

Many attempts have been made to document Hindi poetry. Some of the most comprehensive online collections for Hindi poetry are Kavitakosh and Geeta-Kavita. The most >[ promotional language ]

Vyangya (Hindi Satire) [ edit ]

The rhetoric of satire is called Vyangya in Hindi. Vyangya writings includes the essence of sarcasm and humour. Some of the better known writers in this genre are, Harishankar Parsai(Hindi: हरिशंकर परसाई) (August 22, 1924 – 1995) was a Hindi writer. He was a noted satirist and humorist of modern Hindi literature and is known for his simple and direct style., Sri Lal Sukla, Suryakumar Pandey etc. [12]

Hindi travel literature [ edit ]

Rahul Sankrityayan, Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan, Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan ‘Ajneya’ and Baba Nagarjun were some of the great Indian writers who dedicated themselves entirely to the Hindi Travel Literature ( Yatra Vritanta ). Rahul Sankrityayan was one of the greatest travelled scholars of India, spending forty-five years of his life on travels away from his home. He is known as the ( “Father of Hindi Travel literature” ). Baba Nagarjun was a major Hindi and Maithili poet who has also penned a number of novels, short stories, literary biographies and travelogues, and was known as (” Janakavi- the People’s Poet “).

Hindi playwriting [ edit ]

The pioneer of Hindi theatre as well as playwrighting, Bhartendu Harishchandra wrote Satya Harishchandra (1875) Bharat Durdasha (1876) and Andher Nagari (1878), in the late 19th century, Jaishankar Prasad became the next big figure in Hindi playwriting with plays like Skanda Gupta (1928) Chandragupta (1931) and Dhruvswamini (1933). [13] [14]

As the Independence struggle was gathering steam playwrights broaching issues of nationalism and subversive >[15] Yet we have playwrights like Jagdish Chandra Mathur ( Konark ) and Upendranath Ashk ( Anjo Didi ), who displayed a steadily evolving understanding of stagecraft. These were followed another generation of pioneers in Hindi playwrighting, Mohan Rakesh, who started with Ashadh Ka Ek Din (1958) Adhe Adhure and Lehron Ke Rajhans , Dharamvir Bharati, who wrote Andha Yug , and other playwrights like Surendra Verma, and Bhisham Sahni.

Hindi essay-writing [ edit ]

Kuber Nath Rai is one of the writers who dedicated themselves entirely to the form of essay-writing. [16] His collections of essays Gandha Madan Priya neel-kanti Ras Aakhetak Vishad Yog Nishad Bansuri Parna mukut have enormously enriched the form of essay. [16] A scholar of Indian culture and western literature, he was proud of Indian heritage. [16] His love for natural beauty and Indian folk literatures and preference for agricultural society over the age of machines, his romantic outlook, aesthetic sensibility, his keen eye on contemporary reality and >[16]